1. INADEQUATE LAND OR LAND TENURE SYSTEM
i. Increase in population reduces the size of farmland. When population increases at a higher proportion, more lands will be needed for housing and recreation centres.
ii. The type of land tenure system in West Africa discourages farmers from acquiring large scale farming. In West Africa, farmlands are held communally thereby making it difficult for private and individual farmers from acquiring large farm area for large scale farming. Farmers are thereby limited to peasant farming.
iii. Deforestation. Deforestation is when people turn farmlands to other uses like housing, thereby reducing available lands for farming.
iv. Desert encroachment. Desert encroachment is the diminution or destruction of the biological potential of the land, and can lead ultimately to desert like conditions. One of the causes is drought and man activities.
SOLUTIONS TO INADEQUATE LAND OR LAND TENURE SYSTEM
i. Fertilizers and manure should be used to increase population of crops in the available land.
ii. Crop rotation should be practiced by farmers
iii. The land use decree of 1978 should be fully implemented to minimise the problems of land tenure
iv. Farmers should form co-operative societies for easy allocation of farm land.
v. Human population should be put under check with the adoption of family planning
2. INADEQUATE FINANCE OR CREDIT FACILITY
i. Most subsistence farmers are poor and lack the financial ability to purchase land for large scale farming or purchase modern agricultural tools and machineries.
ii. Most subsistence farmers are not capable to purchase improved seeds, fertilizers and other chemicals.
iii. Small scale farmers lack the financial ability to buy the necessary inputs. Modern day agriculture is dependent on the purchase of livestock, feeds and drugs.
iv. Farmers who get loans at times divert such loans to other purposes such as chieftaincy and marriage ceremonies.
SOLUTIONS TO INADEQUATE FINANCE OR CREDIT FACILITY
i. Loans should be made available to farmers.
ii. Farmers should form co-operative society for easy procurement of loan from commercial banks.
iii. Banks should reduce their high interest rate to encourage borrowing by farmers.
iv. Collateral security should be in form of guarantee rather than in material forms like land and building.
v. Government should setup agricultural banks that will primarily focus on development of agriculture.
3. POOR TRANSPORTATION NETWORK
i. Presence of bad roads or total lack of it makes distribution of agricultural produce to market very difficult and this leads to wastage.
ii. Some roads may be rendered useless during the rainy season.
iii. High cost of transport increases farmers cost of production hence, reduction in their profit margin.
SOLUTIONS TO POOR TRANSPORTATION NETWORK
i. Construction of new feeder roads to open up the rural areas. This will ease the transportation of agricultural produce to the market.
ii. Construction of waterways to link up the riverine areas.
iii. Construction of railways to connect rural areas to the urban centres.
iv. Rehabilitation of existing damaged roads
4. INADEQUATE STORAGE AND PROCESSING FACILITY
i. Lots of produce are wasted due to inadequate storage and processing facilities.
ii. Improper storage reduces the quantity and quality of farm produce.
iii. There is lack of technical know-how on food storage and processing.
iv. It may lead to scarcity of produce.
SOLUTIONS TO INADEQUATE STORAGE AND PROCESSING FACILITY
i. Storage facilities should be provided by the government at subsidized rates.
ii. More people should be trained on the technology of food storage and processing
iii. Provision of storage chemicals such as fumigants
iv. Provision of cold stores for perishable produce and livestock products
5. INADEQUATE FARM INPUTS
i. Farm inputs like chemicals, fertilizers, tools and implements are grossly inadequate.
ii. Most of the farm inputs are not produced in developing countries rather, they are imported.
SOLUTIONS TO INADEQUATE FARM INPUTS
i. Farm input like fertilizers, pesticides, feeds, drugs etc should be made available in adequate quantities to farmers.
ii. Government should subsidize the cost of farm inputs.
iii. Farm inputs should be supplied at the rights time to farmers.
6. INADEQUATE BASIC AMENITIES
i. There is lack of electricity in many rural areas for farm operations. Like storage of perishable farm produce in cold room.
ii. Inadequate provision of potable water for domestic use.
iii. Poor health-care services reduce the productivity of farmers.
iv. There is also lack of recreational facilities in rural areas.
SOLUTIONS TO INADEQUATE BASIC AMENITIES
i. Provision of electricity in the rural areas
ii. Provision of potable and drinkable water
iii. Provision of health-care centres in rural areas
7. POOR MARKETING SYSTEM
i. There are no organised marketing channels for farm produce.
ii. There is lack of proper pricing for agricultural produce.
iii. Absence of commodity boards to aid the purchase of farm produce.
SOLUTIONS TO POOR MARKETING SYSTEM
i. Government should buy excess produce from farmers
ii. Government should stabilise prices of farm produce in the country
iii. Commodity boards should be re-established to help organize the marketing of agricultural produce.
8. INADEQUATE AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION AND EXTENSION
i. Majority of the farmers are illiterate, they cannot read and write.
ii. Extension officers are very few or inadequate.
iii. Local farmers are very co-operative, hostile and unaccommodating to extension officers.
iv. Local farmers are not always willing to learn and accept modern methods of farming.
SOLUTIONS TO INADEQUATE AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION AND EXTENSION
i. Mass literacy programme should be embarked upon by the government e.g. nomadic education for cattle rearers who are always on the move.
ii. Rural farmers should be trained on modern system of farming.
iii. Adequate and qualified extension officers should be employed to teach peasant farmers on new innovation and techniques in agriculture.
9. INADEQUATE TOOLS AND MACHINERY
i. Farm tools and machineries like ploughs, harrows, tractors, planters etc are grossly inadequate.
ii. Use of simple farm tools like cutlass and hoe leads to low agricultural production or low output per unit time.
iii. It causes faster aging in the farming population.
iv. Absence of skilled manpower in the maintenance, repair and operation of sophisticated farm machineries.
SOLUTIONS TO INADEQUATE TOOLS AND MACHINERY
i. Introduction and utilization of modern farm machineries and implements
ii. Establishment of tractor hiring units to make the machineries readily available to poor farmers who cannot afford to purchase the expensive farm machineries.
iii. There should be importation of appropriate machineries and implements
10. ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION
i. Flooding can lead to the destruction of crops and livestock
ii. Soil erosion can wash away crops and animals
iii. Deforestation reduces rainfall, forest trees, land protection and causes erosion.
SOLUTIONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION
i. Flooding should be avoided
ii. Soil erosion should be properly checked
iii. Pollution and deforestation should be avoided