Power is the ability to carry out a task or the use of physical force or strength.
FORMS OF POWER
i) Political Power: Political power refers to the power exercised by the various arms of government, such as an executive order by the president, legislative power by lawmakers and judiciary order by a judge.
ii) Physical Power: Physical power is the use of physical force to carry out a task. The lifting of a heavy object and pushing a car involves the use of physical power.
iii) Economic Power: Economic power arises from the control of strategic resources such as the Niger Delta region of Nigeria that gets 13% derivatives every month because it produces the nation’s crude oil. America uses economic power to compel other nations to it wishes apart from the use of military power.
iv) Military Power: Military power is defined as power emanating from the barrels of gun. It involves the use of decree and force to get obedience.
SOURCES OF POWER OR MEANS OF ACQUISITION OF POWER
1) The Constitution: The constitution is a body of law by which a country is governed. The president for example derives his power from the constitution.
2) Through Inheritance: A Monarch or King gets crowned through inheritance. He is not elected by the people; therefore his power is through inheritance.
3) Position of Authority: Power is achieved by occupying a position of authority in an organization. Such as the chairman of an organization, even the gate keeper has some power which he exercises.
4) Through Coercion: Power through coercion is compelling people against their will. The military is a good example; it mostly coerces and force people against their will.
5) The use of Charisma: Some acquire power through their personal influence and capacity to inspire devotion and enthusiasm, such charismatic attribute goes with persuasion.
6) Control of Economic Resources: Those who control economic resources use such opportunity to acquire political power.
SOURCES OF POLITICAL AUTHORITY
1) Traditional Authority: This is derived from hereditary families based on the existing customs and tradition, such as a king, queen or an emperor.
2) Legal Authority: This is derived from a body of rules and regulations governing a given society.
3) Charismatic Authority: The source of this type of authority is the exceptional personal characteristics. Charisma is an extraordinary quality of a person which gives rise to the acceptance of the person as a leader.
TYPES OF AUTHORITY
1) Political Authority: Those appointed by the president or governor to head an agency have political authority. Their position of authority are commonly refers to as political appointment.
2) Coercive Authority: It involves the use of force. Military authority is a good example of coercive authority.
3) Charismatic Authority: It is the ability to inspire enthusiasm and interest from other people either through speech or action. It is the possession of a good charisma.
4) Delegated Authority: Delegated authority arises when someone is chosen to represent another person. For example, the representation of the president of a country in an occasion by another person.
5) Technical Authority: It is based on technical know-how. Such a person’s authority is accepted because he is a recognized expert in the field concerned.
6) Traditional Authority
7) Legal Rational Authority
8) Positional Authority
Sovereignty is the supreme power that exists in a state and it is exercised by the three arms of government.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SOVEREIGNTY
1) Absoluteness: Absoluteness means there is no other power in the state that is greater than it.
2) Permanence: This means that sovereignty is forever and not for a while.
3) Indivisibility: It is not shared with any other authority.
4) Comprehensiveness: It must be thorough and well spelt out without leaving any ambiguity.
5) Inalienability: Sovereignty cannot be taken away, if it is taken away such country lacks the power of self determination.
6) Absence of Foreign Control: It must not be subject to external control by other nations. It should be self sufficient.