Organs of government are the legislature, executive and the judiciary. The legislature is responsible for law making, the executive is responsible for the execution and enforcement of laws while the judiciary is responsible for law adjudication.
This is the organ or arm of government that is assigned the function of law making.
FUNCTIONS OF LEGISLATURE
i) House of Representative: The legislature acts as the house of those elected to speak for and represent the people of a country.
ii) Law Making: Making of laws that direct and guide the affairs of the nation and guarantee peace and progress of a country.
iii) Amendment of the Constitution: It amends the constitution to suit the changing need of the country.
iv) Control of the Executive: If the executive abuses his power, it has the power to impeach the president.
v) Approval of Appointments: It approves appointments made by the president such as the appointments of ministers, ambassadors and the Chief Justice of the Federation.
TYPES OF LEGISLATURE
i) UNICAMERAL LEGISLATURE: It refers to a situation in a country where there is only one legislative house or body that makes laws. Once a bill has been passed by the assembly it goes to the president for his assent.
ii) BICAMERAL LEGISLATURE: It refers to a legislature with two legislative houses or body. The two houses make law separately while certain laws are passed jointly such as year budget proposal. They are House of Representative which many people refer to as the Lower House and the Senate which is termed the Upper House.
B) THE EXECUTIVE
It is the organ of government responsible for the implementation, execution and enforcement of laws, policies and directives made and given by the legislative arm of government. Members of the executive include; The President, Prime Minister, Governors, Ministers, Commissioners and other officials and the civil servants.
TYPES OF EXECUTIVE
i) Single Executive / Presidential Executive
ii) Dual Executive / Parliamentary Executive
iii) Collegiate Executive
FUNCTIONS OF EXECUTIVE
i) Execution of laws through the police, the army and the civil servants.
ii) Giving assent to bills passed by the legislature to become a law.
iii) Maintenance of law and order through the police for internal peace and soldiers against external aggression.
iv) Maintenance of external relationship.
v) Presentation of bill to the legislature.
vi) Budget proposal
vii) Dissolution of the parliament.
viii) Appointment of judicial officials
C) THE JUDICIARY
They are responsible for interpretation and application of the laws when they are broken or violated. It adjudicates in dispute between the executive and the legislature, government and the citizens or organization. The judiciary is made up of different courts like the Supreme Court, Appeal Court, High Court, Magistrate Court, Customary Court, Administrative Court and Tribunals.
FUNCTIONS OF THE JUDICIARY
i) Interpretation of laws
ii) Dispute adjudication
iii) Punishment of law breakers
iv) Guardian of the constitution
v) Determination of election petitions
vi) Protection of citizen’s rights and liberties
vii) It gives advice to the president