Livestock management involves the integrated application of the principles of animal breeding. Feeding housing, organisation and disease control in a manner suitable for a particular situation.
This is a general principle involved in raising farm animals and it includes housing, feeding, health, reproduction and disease control.
IMPORTANCE OF LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT PRACTICE
i) Provision of food and proper decision making.
ii) Provision of employment or proper resource utilization.
iii) Provision of income or increase in profitability.
iv) Proper utilization of raw materials for industries.
v) Provision of foreign exchange.
vi) Rural development and planning.
Nutrition is defined as science of feeding. A nutrient is also any element or compound present in the food and required by the animal for proper functioning.
CLASSIFICATION OF FEEDS
Feeds can be classified into four main groups.
ii) Basal or energy feeds
iii) Forages and roughages
iv) Additives / pre-mix / vitamins / minerals/ growth promoters
SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS OF FEED NUTRIENT
There are six classes of food nutrient which are needed by animals for growth and proper development. These are;
Carbohydrate is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Sources: This include maize, guinea corn, cassava, grasses, wheat, potatoes, rice, millet, yam, cocoyam, plantain etc.
Function: Carbohydrate provides energy to farm animals for growth, reproduction, milk production and other activities like building of fat.
Composition: Protein is composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and sometimes sulphur, nitrogen and phosphorus.
Sources: Animal source of protein are fish meal, blood meal, meat meal, feather meal, milk, skimmed milk powder etc.
i) Proteins are essential for the growth of young ones.
ii) They are used for the repair of worn-out tissues or cells.
iii) They are used in the formation of gametes in production.
iv) Meat, egg and milk production in livestock depend on the protein level in the animal.
v) They are required for the production of enzymes and hormones in the body of livestock.
vi) Proteins are essential for the sustenance of life.
vii) They are also necessary for flesh build-up.
3. FATS AND OIL
Sources: Palm oil, palm kernel cake, groundnut cake, coconut meal, coconut meal, cotton seed cake,milk, lard.
i) Fats provide more energy than carbohydrates
ii) Fats supply essential fatty acids and fat build-up.
iii) They also provide fat soluble vitamins.
iv) They improve the palatability of diet.
v) Fats help in the maintenance of body temperature
Minerals required by animals are grouped into Macro-elements and Trace elements.
Vitamins are organic substances also required by animals for proper growth and development of the body. Vitamins are grouped into fats soluble vitamins and water soluble vitamins.
Water is very important in livestock management be it to the animals or their immediate environment.
Sources; Drinking water from tap, metabolic water from food, rain water, water from rivers, pond grasses and fresh fodder.
FUNCTIONS OF WATER
i) Water is provided for drinking purposes.
ii) It is used for metabolic and digestion of food.
iii) Water is also used for diping / drenching animal against ectoparasites and endoparasites.
iv) Water is equally used for washing or cleaning animals.
TYPES OF RATION/DIET AND THEIR USES
DIET: A diet is defined as the amount of feed regularly given to or consumed by an animal.
RATION: Ration is the total supply of feed given to an animal in a twenty-four hour period.
BALANCE RATION: A balanced ration is the feed containing all essential nutrients in the correct quantity and in adequate proportion for feeding animals.
TYPES OF RATION
i) Maintenance Ration: This is the type of ration given to farm animals just to maintain normal functioning of the body system.
ii) Production Ration: This is the type of ration given to farm animals to enable them produce.
MALNUTRITION IN FARM ANIMAL
Malnutrition is a condition in which an animal shows evidence of nutrition deficiency.
|1.||Ricket and Osteomalacia||Lack of calcium phosphorus and vitamin D||Flexible and curved bone, soft shell eggs||Add fish meal bone or oyster shell to feed|
|2.||Perosis||Lack of chlorine phosphorus in diet||Chicken lie down on their kneels||Add vitamins B complex and bone meal|
|3.||Pregnancy toxemia ketosis||Lack of sufficient energy intake by farm animals||Loss of appetite||Feed carbohydrate to animal|
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