Genetic variation refers to observable differences within a specie, variations which relate to physical appearance such as height, skin colour, shape of parts of the body, finger prints etc are called morphological variations. Also the variations which relate to the functioning of the body such as ability to roll the tongue, ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) etc are known as physiological variation.
TYPES OF GENETIC VARIATION
1. Continuous Variations: A gradual change in a characteristic or trait, from one extreme to the other.
2. Discontinuous Variations: Differences in characteristics or trait with no intermediate state.
CAUSES OF GENETIC VARIATIONS
1. Genetic Difference: Human genetic variation is the genetic differences both within and among populations. There may be multiple variants of any given gene in the human population (genes), leading to polymorphism.
2. Genetic Environmental Influences: Drugs, chemicals, temperature, and light are environmental factors that can determine which genes are turned on and off, thereby influencing the way an organism develops and functions.
APPLICATION OF VARIATION
1. Crime Detection: Through the analysis of chromosomes and genes: Genetic variation can help in resolving criminal cases through genetic investigation.
2. Blood Transfusion: The study of genetic variation helps in determining which blood is most suitable in saving the life of a patient.
3. Determination of Paternity: This is identification of the offspring of an individual. In situation where the biological father of a child is in doubt. It could be determined with DNA investigation.
4. Personal Identification: Genetic examination also help in the terms of personal identification.
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