TOLERANCE: The ability of an organism to withstand unfavourable ecological factors in their habitat.
GEOGRAPHICAL RANGE: The limit of the area of the biosphere in which an organism naturally lives.
ADAPTATION: The modification of structures, or function or behavior which enable organisms to survive in their environment.
1. AQUATIC HABITAT
Aquatic habitat is a body of water in which certain organisms live naturally. Example of organisms are fish, toads.
2. MARINE HABITAT
Marine habitat refers to aquatic which contain saltwater. Marine habitat include ocean, lake, shores
3. ESTUARINE HABITATS
Estuarine habitat is a body of water formed at the coast as a result of the action of tides which mix salt water from sea with fresh water from land. The brackish water is what is called estuarine.
4. FRESHWATER HABITATS
Fresh water habitat is a body of water formed mainly from inland waters and contain very low level of salinity.
CHARACTERISTICS OF HABITATS
|SN||MARINE HABITATS||ESTUARINE HABITATS||FRESH WATER HABITATS|
|1.||Salinity: Salinity is the degree of saltiness or concentration of salt solution in oceans. It has high salinity and its average salinity is put at 35.2 per 1000.||Fluctuation In Salinity: Salinity is lower at the mouth of a river and gets higher towards the sea. Salinity is also affected by season. While rainy season reduces salinity.||Low Salinity: Fresh water habitat normally contain very low level of salts.|
|2.||Density: The density of marine water is high hence many organisms can float in it.||Turbidity: Turbidity of estuarine habitat increases especially during the rainy season when lots of debris are brought down by rivers to the habitat.||Small in size: Fresh water habitat is usually very small compared to the ocean water which is about 75% of the earth surface|
|3.||Pressure: Water pressure increases in depth at the rate of atmosphere for every ten metres, that is why animals in marine habitats have features which enable them to adapt especially at the deep level of the sea||Shallowness of water: The water in estuarine habitat is very shallow||Variation in temperature: The temperatures of fresh water habitat usually varies with season and depth|
|4.||Size||Low Species diversity: The estuarine habitat has low diversity of species compared to marine habitat||High concentration of oxygen content: Oxygen is usually available in all parts of the fresh water, especially in the surface of the water|
|5.||Currents||Water is affected by tides||Shallowness of water|
|6.||Tides||High level of nutrients||Seasonal variation|
|7.||Oxygen concentration||Low oxygen content||Currents|
|8.||Hydrogen ion concentration|
5. TERRESTRIAL HABITAT
Terrestrial habitats refer to life on dry land.
6. MARSH HABITATS
Marsh habitat is defined as lowland habitat which is usually flooded or water-logged all the time.
CHARACTERISTICS OF MARSH HABITAT
i) Nature of soil: Wet, soft, water logged and poorly drained.
ii) Low land habitat.
iii) High flooding.
iv) Presence of stagnant water.
v) Presence of organic matter.
vi) High rate of organic decomposition.
vii) High relative humidity.
|SN||PLANTS FOUND IN MARSHES||ANIMALS FOUND IN MARSHES|
|4.||Sword grasses||Hermit crab|
|5.||Duck weed||Mud skeppers|
|7.||Sedges etc||Oysters etc|
7. FOREST HABITATS
A forest is an extensive community of plants dominated by tall trees.
CHARACTERISTICS OF RAIN FOREST
i) Presence of broad leaves.
ii) Presence of buttress roots.
iii) Presence of tall trees.
iv) Existence of canopies.
v) Trees exist in layers or stories.
vi) Presence of fallen leaves on ground.
vii) Trees have thin bark.
viii) Presence of epiphytes
PLANTS IN FOREST HABITAT
- African walnut
ANIMALS IN FOREST HABITAT
- Tree frogs
8. GRASSLAND OR SAVANNA HABITAT
Grassland or savanna habitat is a plant community in which grass species are dominant with short but scattered trees and shrubs.
CHARACTERISTICS OF GRASSLAND
- Predominance of the grasses
- Presence of short but scattered trees
- Absence of stratified canopies
- Presence of fire resistant trees
- Small size of leaves
- Presence of drought resistant trees
- Presence of underground stems
- Presence of deep rooted plants
- Presence of deciduous plants
PLANT SPECIES IN THE GRASSLAND
- Elephant grass
- Guinea grass
- Gamba grass
- Baobab trees
- Isoberlinia doka
ANIMALS SPECIES IN THE GRASS LAND
9. ARID LAND OR DESERT HABITATS
Arid land or desert refers to areas of very low rainfall and high evaporation rate.
TYPES OF ARID LAND OR DESERT HABITATS
1. Hot deserts
2. Cold deserts
CHARACTERISTICS OF ARID LAND (HOT)
i) Scarcity of water
ii) Hot temperature
iii) Presence of sandy soils
iv) High sunshine
v) Predominance of strong winds
vi) Poor vegetation
vii) Low relative humidity
viii) Presence of drought resistant plants
PLANT SPECIES IN ARID LANDS OR HOT DESERTS
i) Thorny bushes
iii) Scattered dwarf acacia
iv) Wiring grasses
v) Date palm
vi) Baobab trees
vii) Euphorbia spp
ANIMAL SPECIES IN ARID LANDS
- Desert tortoise
- Pocket mice