Communalism refers to a system of collective ownership of property and cooperation among members of a community in the execution of development project.
FEATURES OF COMMUNALISM
i) Collective ownership of property
ii) Co-operation among members in the execution of developmental projects.
iii) No member of the communal society is allowed to own private land.
iv) It discourages members from pursuing individual objectives.
Feudalism is a primitive system of government and economic system based mainly on hierarchical order of ownership of land.
FEATURES OF FEUDALISM
i) It is based mainly on hierarchical order of ownership of land.
ii) Ownership of land is vested in the king or monarch or emperor.
iii) The land users or serfs are duty-bound to protect the lord.
iv) The land users or serfs hold land in return for the services they render to their lords or kings.
MERITS OF FEUDALISM
i) It fosters among the big landlords self-reliance and love of personal independence.
ii) It institute orderliness and avoid total chaos. It thus provided a temporary framework on which a true national life could grow.
DEMERITS OF FEUDALISM
i) Disintegration of the state.
ii) This is an exploitative master – servant relationship.
iii) Legality and obedience is not to the government but to the land owner.
Oligarchy is defined as government ruled by few privileged and powerful people.
FORMS OF OLIGARCHY
i) Aristocracy: This is a form of oligarchy government, ruled by few persons of the highest social rank known as the nobles.
ii) Plutocracy: Plutocracy is a government championed by few rich and powerful group.
iii) Military Ruler: It is a government controlled by men in khaki uniform called soldiers.
iv) Theocracy: Theocracy is a government controlled by priest or priestly class.
v) Diarchy: Diarchy is controlled by two joint authorities or rulers.
vi) Gerontocracy: Gerontocracy is a form of government controlled by a group of old people.
vii) Autocracy: Autocracy is a form of government in which one man or few person’s rule with absolute power and authority without caring for the wishes of the people.
Liberal means given freely or given more than is necessary. Political liberalism means individual liberty, social reform and the removal of economic restraints and rejecting authoritarianism.