CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION
The Civil Service Commission is a body responsible for employing, promotion and discipline of the civil service. It is an executive body that is set up to protect the civil service from the vagaries or instability of politics.
FUNCTIONS OF CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION
i) Regular valuation of the performance of civil servants.
ii) Recruitment of civil servants.
iii) Promotion and discipline of civil servants.
iv) Retirement of the civil servants.
v) Promotion of general interest of the civil servants and service.
Public corporation may be defined as a business organization established, owned and financed with tax payer’s money by government of a country. They are mostly established for the provision of essential services like water, electricity and protection of the citizens from private monopoly.
FUNCTIONS OF PUBLIC CORPORATIONS
i) Provision of essential services like water and electricity at cheaper rate.
ii) Provision of jobs for job seeking citizens.
iii) Source of revenue to the government to finance yearly budget.
iv) Promotion of public welfare through cheap services and products.
v) Providing huge investment ventures.
vi) Preventing unnecessary competition.
vii) To engage in risky investment which businessmen will naturally avoid.
CONTROL OF PUBLIC CORPORATIONS
Public corporation is influenced by the following factors.
i) Judicial Review: Judicial review is when the act setting up the corporation is being tried in a court of law or it is subjected to litigation.
ii) Board of Directors: The Board of Directors controls and manipulate the operation of public corporations.
iii) The Press: The Press mostly pressurize corporations when customers are not getting value for money.
iv) Legislative Influence: The legislature which passes the bill that brought public corporations into existence can modify such law at any point in time.
v) Ministerial Control: Every corporations are directly under the control of one minister and it exerts much influence on its activities in terms of hiring and project execution.
vi) Internal Legal Control: Legal issue may arise in the process of carrying out it functions and this creates concerns for public corporations.
PROBLEMS OF PUBLIC CORPORATIONS
i) Bureaucracy and Red Tapism: Bureaucracy refers to the hierarchy of authorities through every projects implementation must pass through. It generally reduces the pace at which the corporation progress.
ii) Political Interference: Public corporations suffers from lots of political interference especially when there is a major change of government from one political party to the other.
iii) Inefficiency: Civil servants serving in public corporations are generally inefficient as the job is seen as no man’s job.
iv) Lack of Autonomy: Public corporations are not autonomous it is highly dependent on higher authorities that sets it up.
v) Unqualified Personnel: Most recruitment into public corporations are done based on political favour as against merit. This leads to the staffing of unqualified personnel.
vi) Poor Management: When compared to Joint Stock Company, public corporations are poorly managed. The Managers and Board of Directors are hired out of political patronage and not merit.
vii) Corruption and Fraud: Corruption and fraud thrive in public corporations due to lack of merit.
viii) Public Waste: Resources are not meticulously used in public corporations. The activities mostly result to waste of public resources.
ix) Uncaring attitude towards public feelings.
x) Dearth of Equipment: It equipments are mostly obsolete and outdated.
REASONS FOR GOVERNMENT OWNERSHIP OF PUBLIC CORPORATION
i) Capital Involvement: Most sectors of public corporations requires huge capital involvement which takes a longer time to realize profit. This reason discouraged many private investors.
ii) The Nature of their Services: For instance, governments mostly own airports and seaports. This is necessary for security reasons to monitor what comes in and goes out of the country.
iii) Prevention of Exploitation: This is necessary in the provision of public health. If health is solely left in the hands of private investors many citizens without adequate means will be denied access to healthcare.
iv) To avoid Duplication: The need to avoid duplication such as in the provision of electricity and railway like the mounting of poles, transformer and rail tracks, government may choose to establish public corporation.
v) To avoid Private Monopoly: Public corporation is necessary to guide against exploitation of private monopoly. Due to involvement of huge capital private investor may charge exorbitant prices to recoup their investment.
vi) Rapid Economic Development: To achieve fast economic development government will undertake the establishment of public corporation for construction of good roads and airports to achieve rapid economic development.
vii) To Raise the Standard of Living: The provision of essential services by public corporations at affordable prices will raise the standard of living of the citizens.
viii) To avoid Foreign Control of the Economy: Public corporation is necessary to prevent foreign domination of an economy. If major sector of an economy is owned by foreign power. The economy will be subject to the mercy of foreign power through price control and access to such services and goods concerned.
ix) Public corporation is also necessary to ensure constant supply of their services.