Citizenship is a legal status of being a citizen of a country. A citizen is a person who is a legal member of a country and owes allegiance to the country.
MODE OF ACQUISITION OF CITIZENSHIP
1) Citizenship by birth
(a) Place of Birth: An individual can become the citizen of a country by the virtue of being born there.
(b) Descent: Citizenship by descents refers to his/her father’s citizenship.
2) Citizenship by Naturalization / Application: A citizen of a country who has lived in another country for a long period can apply for the citizenship of the country he resides.
3) Citizenship by registration / marriage: An individual can acquire citizenship of another country through marriage especially a female.
4) Honorary Citizenship: This is when citizenship of a country is granted to a distinguished or eminent foreigner without the usual requirement as a mark of honour.
5) Citizenship by Conquest: Through conquest after secessionist struggle, citizenship of certain individuals may be changed by acquiring a new status.
DUTIES AND OBLIGATION OF A CITIZEN
i) Law abiding: A good citizen must be law abiding and uphold the constitution of his country.
ii) Payment of Taxes: Payment of taxes is a civic responsibility of every citizen.
iii) Loyalty: A citizen must be loyal to his country and not share allegiance to another country.
iv) Defence of the Country: Every citizen must be ready to defend the sovereignty of his country when called upon and be willing to join the military.
v) Service to the Nation: All citizens should be willing to service the nation in every capacity required be it in the civil service or the military.
vi) Civic Responsibilities: A citizen have many civic responsibilities such as tax payment, voting in an election. A citizen must be willing to carry out his civic responsibilities without the use of force.
vii) Care of Public Properties: Public properties must be protected and not damaged for the use of the general public.
RIGHTS OF A CITIZEN
i) Right to life which nobody shall intentionally deprive a citizen.
ii) Right to freedom from torture, inhuman or degrading punishment.
iii) Right to dignity of human person.
iv) Right to private and family life.
v) Right to ownership of property.
vi) Right to education.
MEANS OF SAFEGUARDING RIGHT OF CITIZENS
i) An independent and impartial judiciary a citizen can run to for protection whenever his rights are infringed upon.
ii) When freedom of the press is guaranteed, the press will fearlessly protect and safeguard the rights of the citizens.
iii) The right of a citizen will be protected and safeguarded better in a democratic state than in a totalitarian and fascist state.
iv) Good economic system will ensure a citizen’s rights to education, work and commensurate compensation etc.
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