HEREDITARY: Genetic is the scientific study of the mode of inheritance, genes and genetic variation.
i) Genes: Hereditary units located on the chromosomes through which characters are transmitted from parents to offspring.
ii) Genotype: Genotype is the part (DNA sequence) of the genetic makeup of an organism or individual, which determines a specific characteristic (phenotype) of that organism or individual. It is the genetic make-up of an individual.
iii) Phenotype: Phenotype is the physically observable character or appearance of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
iv) Dominant Genes: The physical traits that manifest themselves both in homozygous and heterozygous state.
v) Recessive Genes: Allele whose phenotypic expression is completely masked by the presence of the dominant alleles.
vi) Test Cross: A cross between an individual and its homozygous parent to determine its genotype of traits.
vii) Traits: Traits is the characteristic of an organism controlled by pairs of genes.
viii) Pure-line: A succession of generation of organism that are homozygous for all genes.
ix) Allelomorphs: Allelomorphs is a different form of a gene occupying the same locus on homologous chromosomes, producing contrasting characteristics.
x) Homologous Chromosomes: A pair of chromosomes with identical genes located on corresponding ion of both chromosomes, each originating from the father and the mother.
TRANSMISSION AND EXPRESSION OF CHARACTERISTICS IN ORGANISM
i) Hereditary is the transmission of traits from parents to offspring and from generation to generation.
ii) Heritable characteristics include skin colour, height, blood type, sickle cell trait, intelligence etc.
iii) Non heritable characteristics such as language, skills, scars etc are known as acquired characteristics.
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