Anatomy refers to the form and structure of the body while physiology refers to the function of the form and parts of the body.
PARTS OF FARM ANIMALS
The body of farm animals is divided into four, these are
i) Head (brain, eyes, ear, tongue)
ii) Thoracic cavity (heart, lungs, trachea)
iii) Abdominal cavity (liver, uterus, stomach, intestine, kidney)
iv) Limbs (four limbs (hands) and hind limbs (legs)
ORGANS OF FARM ANIMALS
i) Skin: The skin protects animals from microbes and regulates body temperature. The skin has three layers namely, the epidermis. The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin which provides waterproof barrier and creates skin tone. Second, the dermis is beneath the epidermis and contains tough connective tissue, hair follicles and sweat glands. The third is the hypodermis which is the deeper subcutaneous tissue that is made of fat and connective tissue.
The skin colour is a function of melanocytes located in the epidermis, melanocytes generate the pigment melanin.
ii) Kidney: The kidneys are a pair of organs located in the back of the abdomen. The kidneys’ function is to filter the blood, remove wastes, control the body’s fluid balance, and regulate the balance of electrolytes. In the process of filtering the blood, the kidney creates urine.
iii) Liver: The primary function of the liver is to filter the blood coming from the digestive tract before it goes to the rest of the body. The liver secretes bile into the intestine in the process of detoxifying chemicals and metabolizing drugs. The liver is a large organ located on the right side of the belly, it is reddish-brown in colour and protected by the rib cage. The liver comprises of two sections, the right and the left lobes while the gall bladder is under the liver.
SYSTEM OF FARM ANIMALS
i) Digestive System: The digestive system is a group of organs working together that helps convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body. Food passes through the alimentary canal (long tube inside the body) also known as the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). The alimentary canal is made up of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines.
ii) Circulatory System: The circulatory system or cardiovascular system also known as the vascular system, is a network of organ system that helps blood to circulate and transport nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help to fight diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis. Hemodynamics is the study of blood flow.
iii) Respiratory System: The respiratory system is involved in the intake and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and the environment. It is a system of organs responsible for taking in oxygen into the body and expelling carbon dioxide from the body. The primary organs of the respiratory system are lungs, which carry out the exchange of gases as we breathe.
iv) Nervous System: The nervous system is a collection of nerves and cells (neurons) that transmits signals between different parts of the body. It consists of two major parts, the Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System. The Central Nervous System constitute the brain, spinal cord and nerves while the peripheral nervous system consist of sensory neurons, ganglia (clusters of neurons) and nerves that connect to one another and to the central nervous system.
v) Reproductive System: The reproductive system is a collection of internal and external sex organs in both male and female that work together for sexual reproduction. The male reproductive system consists of two major parts, the testes, where sperm are produced and the penis while the female external reproductive organs are clitoris, labia minora, labia majora and Bartholin’s glands, the female internal organs are vagina and uterus.
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