Agricultural pollution refers to biotic and abiotic by-products of farming practices that result in contamination or degradation of the environment and surrounding ecosystem or cause injury to humans and their economic interests.
CAUSES OF AGRICULTURAL POLLUTION
(i) Pesticides and Fertilizer: Pesticides can be irritating to humans causing eyes and body itches. When fertilizers are improperly applied and it gets washed down to the river, it will lead to water pollution.
(ii) Contaminated Water: Waters that have been used which can no longer be reused can pollute the environment if not properly disposed.
(iii) Soil Erosion and Sedimentation: This arises when poisonous items gets washed down into nearby rivers and lakes which affects living organisms that are dependent on the water.
(iv) Marine and Oil Spillage: Oil spillage damages the immediate environment where it gets spilled. If it is in the water, fish and other living organisms will be killed and it becomes undrinkable for humans too. If it gets spilled on land, the land will become infertile and will not be suitable for farming.
(v) Livestock Waste and Dung Disposal: When livestock waste and human wastes are not properly disposed. It will lead to pollution.
SOURCES OF POLLUTION
(i) Point Source Pollution: A point source of pollution is a single identifiable source of air, water, thermal, noise or light pollution. This means that the source of pollution is known.
(ii) Non-Point Source Pollution: Non-point source pollution is both air and water pollution from diffuse sources such as land runoff from agricultural areas into nearby rivers and lakes or air borne pollution into sea.
EFFECTS OF LAND/POND POLLUTION ON FARMERS AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY
(i) Chemical from fertilizers and pesticides make their way into the ground water that ends up in drinking water causing water pollution.
(ii) It causes health related problem such as blue baby syndrome which causes death in infant.
(iii) It can results in the death of many aquatic animals like fish, shrimps, periwinkles etc.
(iv) When farm lands are polluted, farm produce will be reduced causing food shortage
(v) Land and water pollution will lead to economic hardship for farmers occasioned by reduced product available for sale.
(v) Prices of goods and services will increase because little or no products will be brought to the market for sale. This will result in fall in standard of living.